The traditional leaning and teaching process has faced many challenges in the past decades leading to a shift in education thanks to the arrival of technology in education. What were these common challenges?
1. Problems with Access
- Many countries face limits regarding time, space and resources. Some universities are not able to accept all students who have applied for (Farajollahi & Zarifsanaee, 2012; Jowi, Knight, & Sehoole, 2013).
- Women in a lot of countries need learning opportunities to meet their family responsibilities (Sehoole & Knight, 2013).
- Initiatives to promote equity in tertiary education are through the form of loans or scholarships. Unfortunately, many of these schemes deal with difficulties regarding scalability and sustainability (Shen & Ziderman, 2008).
2. Limited Resources
- At a macro-scale, lots of countries are limited in the size of the classrooms, the access of well-trained teachers, as well as internet, reliable transportation modes and access to quality health care systems (UNESCO, 2014).
- Regarding the schools, teachers are also limited regarding their time and the access and availability to instructional materials such as science equipments, textbooks and so on. As well as access to additional educational trainings.
3. Problems with Limited Flexibility and Engagement
- Regarding learning models that are centered on the instructors, this leads to a certain dependence of students to their instructors. This can thus lead to a lack of responsibility coming from the students regarding their own learning experience (Jacob & Eleser, 1997).
- Non-residential students have a hard time connecting with their classes because of limited interactions with their instructors and other students (Davis, 1999).
- Finally, students also have different needs. Howard Gardner (1983) has described a theory of multiple intelligences, Fleming and Mills (1992) explain how students can be divided into four types of learners — visual, auditory, read/write, and kinetic — and that every student enters the classrooms with a different kind of personal history and knowledge base.